Starting KS3 Science can be overwhelming, but here at Beyond, we try to break things down into easily manageable, bite-sized bits of information to make the transition from KS2 to KS3 seamless. This blog takes you on a journey through all six lessons of the Introduction to Science series. Get started today and embark on an exciting science-fueled adventure through a variety of different topics, covering:
- Health and Safety in a Lab
- Finding Your Way Around a Laboratory
- Using a Bunsen Burner
- How to Use a Microscope
- Physics and Investigation Skills
- Making a Flare
Health and Safety in a Lab
Goal: To be safe in a laboratory and recall some common hazard symbols and laboratory rules.
What do you use a laboratory for and why is safety so important?
A Science laboratory is used for carrying out practical investigations. They involve using dangerous chemicals and practical equipment such as Bunsen burners. Some practical equipment, such as test tubes, are easily breakable so care must be taken. The safety of both pupils and teachers is very important so that no one gets hurt.
Laboratory Safety Rules
- Always wear goggles during a practical
- Stand up during a practical
- Do not eat or drink during a practical
- No running around the lab
- Tie long hair back with a bobble
- When something gets broken, tell a teacher
- Make sure equipment gets put away at the end of a practical
They show people how dangerous a chemical is, and what care should be taken when handling them. Symbols can be used all over the world and are immediately recognisable, so it doesn’t matter which language is used.
Types of Hazards
- Health Hazard
- Hazardous to the Environment
Introduction to Science Lesson 1: Health and Safety
Introduction to Science Lesson 1: Beyond YouTube Lesson
Finding Your Way Around a Laboratory
Goal: To get to know some scientific equipment and to find your way around the laboratory.
There is a range of different laboratory equipment you need to know to help you through KS3 Science.
- Heatproof Mat
- Evaporating Basin
- Measuring Cylinder
- Test Tube
- Boiling Tube
- Bunsen Burner
- Clamp Stand
- Filter Paper
- Conical Flask
- Bunsen Burner
- Weighing Scales
Introduction to Science Lesson 2: Finding Your Way Around a Laboratory
Introduction to Science Lesson 2: Beyond YouTube Lesson
Using a Bunsen Burner
Goal: To be able to use a Bunsen burner safely.
What safety precautions do we need to follow before we can use a Bunsen burner? Stand-up, put goggles on, tie hair back, put bags away, tuck ties in. Very carefully, collect a Bunsen burner and a heatproof mat from the side.
Why do we need a heat proof mat?
To prevent the Bunsen burner from burning the desk.
How do you use a Bunsen Burner?
- Place the heatproof mat underneath the Bunsen burner.
- Attach your Bunsen burner to a gas tap. (Do not turn on the gas tap.)
- When you are ready, the teacher will come round and light your Bunsen burner.
- Very carefully – only holding the collar and the tubing, turn the collar to open and shut the air hole.
- air hole
- roaring flame
- yellow flame
What does the air hole do?
It lets more oxygen into the Bunsen burner.
What colour would the flame be if the Bunsen burner had the safety flame on?
Why is it called the safety flame?
So you can see the flame more easily when the Bunsen burner is not in use.
Introduction to Science Lesson 3: Using a Bunsen Burner
Introduction to Science Lesson 3: Beyond YouTube Lesson
How to Use a Microscope
Goal: To explore the importance of biological sciences and to be able to use a microscope to magnify objects, to see in more detail.
Microscopes have been used for years to observe objects that are too small to see with the naked eye. Over time the magnification of microscopes has significantly improved due to developments in technology. We now have microscopes that can examine specimens at an atomic level. We have made many important scientific discoveries thanks to using microscopes.
Parts of a Microscope
- Eyepiece lens
- Objective lens
- Fine adjustable knob
- Stage clips
- Coarse adjustment knob
- Light source
How to Use a Microscope
- Plug in the microscope and turn on the light.
- Place the specimen (the object to observe) on the stage.
- Turn the magnification to the smallest.
- Make sure that the specimen is in the centre; fasten with the clips.
- Look down the microscope.
- Use the fine focussing wheel to observe the specimen.
- Increase the magnification.
- Draw/write down any observations.
Introduction to Science Lesson 4: How to Use a Microscope
Introduction to Science Lesson 4: Beyond YouTube Lesson
Physics and Investigation Skills
Goal: To investigate the effect of marshmallows on the heat loss in hot chocolate.
Beyond’s Introduction to Science lesson on Physics and Investigative Skills covers the essentials you need to know to develop your scientific investigative skills.
To develop your investigative skills you must be able to:
- state the key variables in a physics investigation
- carry out a physics experiment safely
- write a conclusion based on a set of results and suggest improvements to practicals
- draw a graph based on collected data
What are variables?
- Independent variable – What you can CHANGE
- Dependent variable – What you MEASURE
- Control variable – What you keep the SAME
Example method for an experiment
- Collect a small cup/200ml beaker.
- Add 1 spoonful of hot chocolate.
- Add 150ml of boiled water – being careful when pouring.
- Add the marshmallows.
- Place the thermometer in the beaker, wait for 1 minute and measure the start temperature.
- Then measure the temperature every 30 seconds for 5 minutes.
- Repeat the above steps, but without the marshmallows.
Identifying the control variables in this example.
Anything in the method that is kept the SAME, is a CONTROL VARIABLE.
- small cup/200ml beaker.
- 1 spoonful of hot chocolate
- 150ml of boiled water
- wait for 1 minute
- measure the temperature every 30 seconds for 5 minutes.
Prediction – What do you think will happen and why?
Conclusion – What do your results show?
Analysis – Are the results expected?
Introduction to Science Lesson 5: Physics Marshmallow Experiment
Introduction to Science Lesson 5: Beyond YouTube Lesson
Making a Flare
Goal: To carry out the flame test and identify the best metal to be used in a flare.
This Beyond Lesson allows you to use all the skills you’ve developed over the past five lessons.
What are the everyday uses of Chemistry?
Chemistry is used in everyday life, there are many examples including: cooking, fireworks and recycling. Another use is a flare. A flare is something used by people who are lost,
stranded or generally in trouble for signalling to rescue services. When making a flare it is important to think about the properties you want the flare to have i.e. bright and colourful.
To find the best chemical for the flare you could carry out this experiment:
- Dip the splint in some water.
- Dip the end in a test tube sample of metal chloride e.g. copper.
- Turn the Bunsen burner to the blue flame and carefully place the end of the splint into the flame.
- Write down any observations/colours in the results table.
When carrying out a practical you must consider:
- The independent variable
- The dependent variable
- The control variable
- The equipment list
- The method
In this experiment these would be the following:
- Independent variable: type of metal.
- Dependent variable: the colour of the flame.
- Control variable: amount of chemical, amount of water, time in the Bunsen flame.
- Equipment List
- Bunsen burner
- heatproof mat
When you assess your work it is important to consider:
- The effort you have used
- Identify what you have done well
- Think of improvements you can make
- Have you mentioned the variables?
- Is it detailed?
- Is your method easy to follow?
- Have you missed any steps in the method?
Introduction to Science Lesson 6: Making a Flare
Introduction to Science Lesson 6: Beyond YouTube Lesson
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